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Three Myths of Behavior Change – What You Think You Know That You Don’t: Jeni Cross at TEDxCSU

Three Myths of Behavior Change – What You Think You Know That You Don’t: Jeni Cross at TEDxCSU


Reviewer: Reiko Bovee I want to challenge you all
about what you think you know. Many of you are here because you’re really interested
in making change. You’re thinking about making change in lots of places and lots of ways. But what you don’t know is that your greatest adversary
is not that change is hard to make; your greatest adversary is common sense. (Laughter) I know that’s kind of a shocker. You think that you’re a human being,
and you know the way the world works, but I’m here to burst that bubble. Let’s look at a couple of
efforts to make change. One of the things people
have been working on for decades is trying to reduce littering, trying to get us to put our trash
and our waste in appropriate places. So we here we have two campaigns. One that says, “This is the amount of rubbish that’s been left around
this bus stop since Monday.” That’s a really common strategy for trying
to encourage people to stop wasting. If we show people how big
the problem is, they’ll stop doing it. The other strategy
is poster B, and it says, “See what this Olympic runner is doing? She cares about our town, Preston,
and she’s throwing away her waste.” I want each of you to look at
these two ads, A and B, and think to yourself: Which one has the biggest chance
of making a change and reducing littering? Just keep that in your mind. We’ll get back to it at the end,
and we’ll see how good you are. I promised you that I would talk to you
about common sense and why it’s your greatest adversary. There really are three kind of big ways
that common sense leads us astray. The first is that we think if we’re going to change
people’s behavior, they just need education: if we just give them some information,
then they’ll change their behavior. What’s missing in this equation is
that people don’t know. And if we just fill in the gaps,
then we can get them to do what we want. Let’s think about one thing that people
are talking about a lot right now, which is energy conservation. April opened today by telling you that buildings are responsible
for 40% of our energy consumption, 40% of our greenhouse gas emissions. So if we want to make
an impact on climate change, we need to think about buildings. So some social scientists were thinking, “How do we get homeowners
to reduce their energy consumption?” They sent auditors out
to look at people’s homes. One of the things they were looking for, and reporting back on,
and giving people information about, is these little gaps
in and around your doors and windows. If you live in an old house
like the house I grew up in, you might have these little cracks. They’re letting in cold air, and that’s making you
have to turn your furnace up. So if we just tell people
how many cracks there are, how many windows need help,
people will weatherstrip, right? If you give people information, 20%, 20% of people will weatherstrip. But really we’re going to spend money
and send people to homes and investigate, and we’re only going to get one out of five people
to change their behavior? We can do better than that. We have to know that how you present
information makes a difference. One of the big things
that makes a difference is making information tangible. If you take all of those little cracks
around all of those doors and windows, and you say, “How big is that? … The gap in your house
is as big as a basketball,” people then magically now understand
how important is to fill them. When they just think they
have 16 windows and cracks, they don’t see it as important. But when you make it
more tangible and say, “You have a hole in your house
the size of a basketball,” people say, “Oh, maybe weatherstripping those doors
would really make a difference.” Making information tangible
makes a difference. The folks in this study did more
than just making information tangible, and they also personalized information
in those homeowners, and they interacted with them.
[How you present information matters] Putting up posters that people
might or might not see is never as effective
as talking to other people. Social interaction
is one of the most important tools that we can use for making change. There are other things, though,
that help us when education fails us, when just giving out
information is not enough. Sorry, I skipped that. Back up there. When you give people
all three of these things, 60% of them weatherstripped. That’s a three-fold increase
in how big the change is. So how you present the information
triples the effectiveness of your effort, and knowing that makes a difference. There are other things, other things
about how we present information. One of them is that human beings
are loss averse. We fundamentally hate to lose anything. If you tell people what they’re losing, they’ll engage
in the behavior that you want, just because you’ve told
them what they’re losing. It doesn’t matter
how big or small that is, but hearing that you’re losing is more likely to change behavior
than hearing what you’re gaining. This is the Denver water campaign, and they’re trying to encourage people to engage in more water
conservation practices. A lot of people don’t understand
the importance of fixing leaks, or fixing a running toilet, because you just hear
a little drip, drip, drip. Big deal, it’s just a little drip. But when you add up all those drips, over a few months or a year,
you’re wasting gallons, and telling people
that they are losing gallons of water motivates people to change in a new way. So framing loss can make a difference. The other thing
that social scientists know is that you actually have to think
about various audiences. Different audiences need
different information. This is a campaign poster
from here at CSU, and it’s one of several
that was created by students to help reduce high-risk alcohol use. Students who are heavy users of alcohol,
they want different information. They’re not interested in
what all CSU students are doing. The only reference group, the only people
that are important, that matter, to them, are what other drinkers are doing. And so their poster says 71% of CSU freshmen who drink,
drink once a week or less, because that’s the norm. But the students who are
more average, lighter drinkers, they’re interested in how much
the whole student body drinks. This data from the same survey says that 71% of the entire
student body drinks. You all laughed when you read the poster. I love this poster. My students love this poster. There are students in the room –
anybody have this poster in your home? Yes! Thank you! I have not given out
this poster for free since 2009. (Laughter) But you can thank
the students who created it. The message here is
that you have to give a message that is appealing to the audience,
to the people that you’re talking to, that resonates with them, and that also gives them the information that they, in particular, are
interested in hearing about. So we have two different posters. One for heavy users
and one for light users with slightly different information. The difference for heavy drinkers
between 77% and 71% maybe sounds like
a tiny bit of difference to you It’s a big difference to them. It’s the difference between the campaign being believable
and influencing their behavior, and the campaign being unbelievable
and having no effect. It’s 6%, but it’s the difference
between believability and unbelievability. So knowing your audience is
a key factor in making change. There are some other things, ways, that common sense leads us astray. This is my personal favorite. We think, kind of generally,
that if you want to change behavior, you’ve got to change people’s attitudes. I talk about energy conservation
often in my research, and people say to me, “How am I going to get people
to believe in climate change? I can’t get people to conserve energy if they don’t believe
that we’re killing the planet.” And I say to them, “You don’t, you really don’t, have to change anybody’s attitude
about climate change.” And people just don’t believe me. To them I say, “You don’t have to
change attitudes to change behavior.” And people always say, “Then what do you do? If you don’t change attitudes,
what do you do?” Let’s start with
what the environmental sociologists have found over and over again
in dozens of studies. Attitudes follow behavior. If you survey people about whether their attitudes
are pro-environmental or not, it will not predict whether or not
they engage in conservation behaviors, it will not predict whether or not
they conserve water, it will not predict
whether or not they recycle. Attitudes follow behavior;
they do not predict it. So stop trying to change it. When people engage in
the behaviors you want, you’ll be able to measure
the attitudes you expect. But before that, you need
to do something else. How many of you were asked by your parents to turn off the light
when you leave the room? Raise your hands. Turn off the light
when you leave the rooms. Okay, this is an effective strategy. Almost everyone in the audience
had their arm up. That’s because your parents do know that setting expectations works. They just don’t that it works
for all kinds of things. Much bigger things than turning off
the light in your room when you leave it. So, don’t change attitudes;
set behavioral expectations. This is a poster of high school students at Rocky Mountain High School. Little placards they put over the lights
in all of the rooms in their high school, reminding teachers and students
to turn off the lights. And that’s what people do. When I interviewed people at this school, new teachers to that school said, “I know that this school cares
about energy conservation, because I see this everywhere. It not only reminds me to engage
in conservation behavior, but it also tells me that people
in this place care about this issue, and that encourages me
to think about it in my daily life.” If we’re not going
to change people’s behavior by changing their attitude, how do we deal with a tough issue
like climate change? Building green buildings like this one, convincing cities and school districts
and other public organizations that they should adopt
green building standards can be a highly politically
contentious issue. Citizens say, “Let’s not waste money
on stuff that we don’t need, that’s not going to do any good.” How do we deal with that? We don’t deal with that
by changing anybody’s attitudes. We deal with it by understanding
what people’s underlying values are. What is it that people really care about? This is a knowable thing. You can ask people and they will tell you
what really matters to them. The environmentalists
care about green buildings for all of these reasons. They care about building
green buildings foremost because they see it as saving the planet. They also care about it because they think green buildings produce
better learning environments for students. They also care about
building green buildings because they know that it saves resources like electricity and natural gas. And they care about it, because, of course, doing all
of those things, saves money, but that’s kind of secondary. There’s a whole other set of people that identify specifically
not as environmentalists. They can bind to green building too, but we have to understand
what their underlying value is, and their core value is frugality. And the value of frugality
is just not wasting. We shouldn’t waste money,
we shouldn’t waste people’s time, we shouldn’t waste natural resources; we should just eliminate waste. This idea of conserving is what unites both of those two ends
of the political spectrum that are so likely
to be fighting with each other. If we sell green buildings
because they are conservative, because they conserve our money,
our time, our resources – and the resources can be money
as well as environmental resources – if you sell it based on conservation, both sides, the left and the right, the environmentalists
and the people who care about frugality, will all buy in. But you must understand values, and that’s a fundamentally
different tactic than changing attitudes. We have one more way
that common sense tends to lead us astray. People think that they know
what motivates them. Now you all are human beings, and you think that
because you’re a human being you’re qualified to say
what motivates you. You are wrong. (Laughter) I know, it makes you laugh. You actually don’t know. It’s kind of an insult to think
I’m a human being and I can’t be counted on
to identify what motivates me. But social scientists
know this to be true. One of the biggest things
that does influence our behavior is social norms. Street musicians know this
and take advantage of it. It’s why they put coins and money
into their guitar cases, or whatever their musical
case is, on the ground. Because we know that when other people
are doing something, other people are more likely to follow. What the street musicians don’t know, is that seeding their case
isn’t really enough, because you haven’t actually
seen another person doing it. What they really should be doing
is bringing their friend with them and asking their friend to come by
every five minutes and drop a dollar in: “Anytime there’s no action, can you just walk by
and drop something in?” The number one predictor
of giving money to a street musician is walking past the musician directly
behind someone who did contribute. That’s the greatest predictor: that you saw somebody else do it. That increases the likelihood
that you will do it. Unfortunately, social norms
are a great motivator of behavior, and they are the most understood
and underestimated by human beings. How many of you have been to a hotel
and have seen the wonderful message: “Please reuse your towel
and help us save the environment”? OK, hotels are using
the least effective method that they could possible use. The reason they’re using that
is because they asked people. They said, “Which one of these messages will motivate you the most
to change your behavior?” People said, “If you ask me
to protect the environment, that will work. If you tell me that other
people are doing it, I’m going to report, I don’t think
that’s a very effective message.” The sad news is that social scientists,
especially psychologists, like to do experiments, and when you do an experiment
and expose people to different messages, you discover that social norms
have the biggest impact on behavior. If you tell people: “75% of the people in this hotel room
reused their towels,” you will get the biggest
bang for your buck. If you ask people to save the environment, you will be about half as effective as if you told people
that other people are doing it. So not only are social
norms really effective, but they’re really underestimated. Not only do human beings
not know what motivates them, they reverse the order of importance. So, if you ask people, you will design a campaign
around their priorities that is the least effective
that it possibly could be. Let’s go back to this one. How many of you thought
A will be the most effective? Be honest, raise your hands. How many of you thought A? Alright, now you know that you’re wrong. (Laughter) How many of you thought B? Alright, we have some
social scientists in the crowd, some people who have taken
one of my classes, or someone else’s. You know that B is the most effective because it utilizes social norms,
and it also uses modeling; it shows someone doing the behavior
that you are interested in. What’s wrong with A is
that it sets the inadvertent norm, the behavior that you’re not
interested in having people do. You’re like, “Everybody litters.” Since social norms
are the most influential, you can create campaigns
that are not only – Does this say the wrong thing? Why are we laughing? Not only can you be
ineffective in your campaign, many people, including
the federal government, have created social norms campaigns that increase the behavior
that they’re trying to reduce, because they use social norms
in a way that is ineffective, because they don’t
know about their importance. I started with saying that many of you
are interested in creating change. We started today by listening to Mike. Mike encouraged all of you
to think about making a meaningful life. I want to encourage you
to think about making effective change. Make your change meaningful. Many of you are going to go out
and try to be entrepreneurs. You might be trying to improve health, you might be trying
to change the environment; all of these things require making change. We can be successful. But you will be the least successful if you let common sense be your guide. (Laughter) I know, it’s kind of hard news to hear. It’s the greatest kept
secret of social science. Dan encouraged us
to think about what is our magic? Really, truthfully, honestly, I think that sociology
and social science is magic. So thank you for letting
me share it with you today. Please use it in your lives. Thanks. (Applause)

99 thoughts on “Three Myths of Behavior Change – What You Think You Know That You Don’t: Jeni Cross at TEDxCSU

  1. As a social marketer who has conducted extensive research for and led a host of health behavior change campaigns over the past 14+ years, I have to disagree with your argument that attitudes essentially have no bearing on behaviors, and therefore do not need to be changed in order to promote behavior change.  This is a sweeping statement, which falls way outside of common social marketing understanding and practice.  One particular "real-life" example that I can cite is a campaign I created to help educate Latina women about HPV and encourage them to get tested for it.  Research showed that our campaign had to overcome concerns about stigma among this population–which were clearly attitudinal–in order to persuade them to take the necessary action(s).  

  2. She is a Propagandist and her buisness is Propaganda. Most of Social Science/propaganda has a detrimental effect on peoples life and she is an evil fuck

  3. @15:30 Is this the main purpose of compulsory education, the social cespool k-12?  Reinforcing the herd mentality that if you don't conform you will be made fun of, ostracized &/or held back. While ingraining a compulsion to fill emotional voids by shopping for cool kicks and bling that will elevate you're social status because intellect is uncool.  It seems the game is rigged, the real environmental issue all along has been that a)Bernay's & the freudians engineered a society of consumers that is oblivious to ~90% of their actions are emotional not rational & b)to many people are reproducing. But the truth is bad for GDP & the war-economy so its politically incorrect to speak of. 

  4. Considering the majority of the people on this planet are in a constant state of hunger and are worried about shelter and employment, perhaps we should start there.

    If people are more concerned with just surviving how can they even begin to think about making changes to their behaviors that may affect the planet or any other positive social change? Until this issue is focused on with laser like precision the chances of affecting anyone's behavior will be very limited.

    The ultimate question is, how do we affect positive behavior changes in those who are manipulating the social structure and societal norms through propaganda for reasons of greed and power? Are scientist and sociologist experimenting on that?

  5. A good way to convince people to aid 'the war' against global warming is to simply tell them there isn't enough people out there who will make large efforts at cleaning our Earth.

  6. You wacko climate terrorists can't even get a model that works right 10 years in the future much less 50, 100, or more – not your fault, you are just not nature (if you are non-religious) nor God (if you are religious). If you weren't so closed-minded you'd know how politicians posing as scientists executed Climategate a couple years ago in attempt to save face.

  7. Bottom line, the earth IS getting warmer, we just aren't the cause. We are still recovering from the "little ice age." For earth to return to "normal" levels of CO2 (from a historical perspective), we still have a long way to go.

  8. Lots of great insights here… but did she actually recommend saying that 75% of people reuse their towels in order to get 58% of people to reuse their towels? Hilarious.

  9. None of those posters have an effect. Not on the long term. It ignores the Class Warfare. People care about stuff that benefits them. And when you are enslaved, what benefits you the most, is to destroy your master, so you can be free. Littering, grafitti, laziness, piracy, etc. are forms of sabotage. A war waged by the slave against his master. Being lazy = being a worthless slave. The master will be forced to find another slave, who works more than you do. And you hope that this way he'll set you free. 
     Unfortunately, your master moves to China.

  10. Common sense is apparently Jeni Cross's greatest enemy: Every adult knows that they can't change other people's behavior by presenting them with logical information. What she presented as a supposedly-alternative choice is, in fact, what common sense is.

  11. but we have very bad air in our houses today, this air full of chemicals makes us sick, may be it's good that there is a gab like a basketball in your house and you get always better fresh air. 🙂

  12. Myth #1 I'd be surprised if ANYbody thought info would do anything. People don't care, so already… Ugh, whatever. Resumes watching

  13. It's rare to find a 10% dislike percentage on Ted or Tedx; that's pretty high.  But that's just information.

  14. The litter thing? Some places actually take away litter baskets because they say people are putting household garbage in them. They they act surprised when littering goes up because there are no garbage cans to put stuff in.

  15. I don´t believe this woman. Personally speaking, I put my garbage in wastebaskets because I see the problem. I don´t need to see an actress putting the garbage in a wastebasket to care about my world. Then again, I am not an average person. I might give a dollar to a poor person, because I see his need, not because I saw someone else giving him money. In fact, If I see someone else helping, I wouldn´t, precisely because he already got help.

  16. #1: Education will change behavior. #2 You need to change attitudes to change behavior. #3 People know what motivates them to take action.

  17. Yeah, I gotta call bullshit at 9:10. Attitudes and behaviors are in a feedback loop on a neurological level. You're just wrong if you think that either can't cause change in the other. Now I'm reluctant to send this video to my students, because she confidently stated something so-terribly-incorrect. 🙁 — which is disappointing, because much of the other information in the video is valuable, as long as she's not overstating her claims.

    Wait, wait, wait… now I'm watching the rest of the video — don't emphasize communication of attitudes, because "attitudes don't cause behavior", but DO try to connect to "values"? Why? To encourage better attitudes, and thereby encourage behavioral change? She just said attitude won't bring behavior. By that logic, should we not simply force people to do the "best" things, until their attitudes accept it? How would their values be relevant to changing behavior, if their attitude — which is the direct product of those values — isn't relevant?

    I know what she's trying to say — don't attempt to force attitudes onto people. Attitude must be influenced subtly (through values), and attitude often has a weaker influence on overall behavior than circumstances. But her overstatement/misstatement of these points is so extreme that I'm afraid the value of making them will be lost on nonbelievers.

    Also, 38 / 58 is almost 2/3 — i.e., you'll be 33% less effective (among CERTAIN GROUPS OF PEOPLE), not HALF as effective (which would be 50% less effective). She's judging the common sense of others, while demonstrating arithmetical illiteracy. Suspicion of her motives and her interpretations of data, seems warranted.

  18. Sociology – what is left as a career when you add up all those credits from basket weaving and the course in media criticism. I knew a guy who frequently crapped in his own pants whenever he sneezed. He ended up a sociology professor as well. His dad wanted to loan him the money to start a business selling pencils at the bus station but this way the taxpayers ended up fronting the guy's salary instead. Sociology careers are what happens to people who realise they just don't care any more what they do.

  19. Its interesting to see so many people operating on beliefs rather than the facts in judging this talk. What Cross is saying is pretty well mainstream psychology backed by research and by the neuroscience, which is even more interesting. Mass education programs work because of the advertising gimmicks that are used not the information (Bangladesh etc etc). Just because change is complex doesn't detract from her argument either. The reality is that people think that these three things work-and they don't.

  20. at the 9th minute i became disinterested. coz although she might be plausible and coherent..i felt that using pychology to change behavior feels unethical to me..present information honestly and let people decide.. manipulation even for a good cause does not seem right to me..people have to be persuaded about any issue.. even climate change..or the existence of god..i say speak your truth and live it and those wo like it can work it.. the ones that dont will learn when they want to..i think..

  21. the talk focusing on how to influence other to change.

    2:00 myth#1:education, link information to tangible image, 5:00 how to present information
    8:09 myth#2: change attitude, attitude follow behavior,setting behavioral expectations 10:12 connect to values
    13:11 myth#3: motivation, identify source– social norm,

  22. Why did the title imply that the entire talk was about behavior change, but failed to include that is was also entirely about environmentalism? Grr.

  23. Education does change behavior. The number of people who smoke has been drastically reduces once people were educated about the real dangers of smoking. Currently only about 22-23 % of people in the United States smoke and this has changed the laws regarding where you can smoke and where you cannot, mostly you cannot smoke anywhere where people who don't smoke might be.

  24. Education doesn't change behavior…. unless that education is 1. tangible 2, personalized 3. socialized, 4. points out what their are losing 5. appeals to the particular audience. TRANSLATION: Education — when persuasive — DOES change behavior.

  25. Anyone who parents has, I hope, discovered that modeling social norms is the most effective way to change behavior. If you want to get a child to clean up their mess, start cleaning the mess and have them help. Kids follow the examples they are given, and adults are simply grown up kids. Makes sense!

  26. Watching some TEDx talks is like being required to sit through those presentations at work by overpaid "facilitators" droning on, offering nothing but useless, wrong, and/or worn-out platitudes packaged as brilliant and effective outside-the-box thinking.

  27. Our actions are guided by a combination of reason and emotion. Suggesting that our barrier to changing behavior is lack of proper information is the furthest thing from insightful that I have heard so far on TEDx

  28. It's a really good thing I don't have to rely on closed captioning or I would have NEVER gotten the gist of this talk."Refinance" = "raise your hands" and "turn up like really the rams" = "turn off the light when you leave the room." I don't know if it's YouTube or the people who create the videos but someone ought to pay attention to the closed captioning for people who DO need to rely on it.

  29. Stupid comparison between the 71% of drinkers who drink once a week and 77% of student body drinks. Saying "6% difference" is a big difference is stupid and shows a complete confusion about the data Jeni Cross herself described, apples and oranges comparison essentially.

  30. I had to stop at myth N1. Education is not about facts. Education is about understanding information and how to use it among other things. At least when it's done right.

  31. I find myself occasionally coming back to this talk because every time I begin watching I don't really understand what she's talking about.

  32. There is only 1 way to change yourself, 1 way to change your behaviour permantly. Your behaviour is a manifestation of your mind, you need to get rid of the bad states and negative parts of your mind. You need to know the nature of your mind, learn to overcome your inner demons. I have the key. Google TruthContest read the Present, it explains for the first time in history the ultimate Truth of life, ( the most accurate explanation of the big picture of life) It will explains how life works, and as a result your mind will gradually change towards the direction of the Truth. It is the way to change your mind.

  33. I respectfully disagree.

    I always adhere to the laws because I think it's best to act as if the whole world acts like you. "If I liter, and the whole world liters, we'd be buried in garbage" As simple as that. When I see a sign, I follow it, and it bothers me that some "choose not to" it's not really because the message wasn't appealing enough, it's simply because they decide that their action isn't important, that it wouldn't make a difference.

    A little here, and a little there. Aren't mountains made from little rocks. Don't belittle your part. Not a single act is little, nor a word, a gaze, or even a smile.

  34. She is right about how we tend to copy some body unconsciously like you start clapping if some body else starts to clap in an auditorium.

  35. As with another Ted talk, I think your title is misleading. Your talk seems to be about how to frame things so people will respond the way you want, not myths.

  36. Right from the first minute, Jeni Cross demonstrated that she is not believable. She wore clothes that don't fit. Her jacket was way too short and way too tight, emphasizing something that professional women are careful not to emphasize.

  37. what I don't understand about her starting and ending with the litter example is that it contradicts what she says in between. Modeling and showing other people do it is the most effective, yet wouldn't that make celebrity endorsement from an Olympian ineffective? Whereas the bus shelter showing the amount of litter that accumulates just in that one area is similar to her example of weather taping and how all the little holes and cracks amount to an entire basketball-sized hole in the house

  38. "oh, you have a hole in your house the size of a baseball"… hmmm, problem with that logic is that it's alarmist which is also a turn off. You just start thinking "bloody chicken little!, sky is falling, sky is falling"". It just makes you dig in deeper.

  39. what she's basically describing here is psychological warfare! that you can affect someone through emotional and societal lack of norm !make anyone feel like they don't belong or that they're The Outsider, that could be blamed or harmed for an action, and they will stop doing it !but that is causing shame and fear not really creating change ! it's manipulation to one person's opinion of what should be like she said you can make them do what we want that's not really making them think that's controlling their thoughts and that's why it's psychological warfare! it's the same tactics used in World War II and World War 1 to control the mindset of another that everyone so upset about! it's basically mental slavery to create Mass Consciousness and a mob mentality at the same time when they really aren't the same thing! but none of this creates positive change because no one's thinking on their own therefore no one's creating their own opinion of what they should or shouldn't be doing they're just following the strongest and most forceful leader last time that happened it was Hitler and Castro so this really what you guys want to do..it clearly works but is it the best option not in my opinion

  40. "Change" is bullshit
    Change is just something different.
    What we really need is SOLVING PROBLEMS
    When you solve a problem, change happens.

  41. Jeni Cross is an SJW fascist bitch! First of all, her explanations of her slides are atrocious, as evidenced by her glossing over the posters about drinking. Dopes like her too often forget their audience is comprised of people who, for the most part, are unfamiliar with the material they are presenting. As the camera scanned that audience there were many expressions indicating they were unsure of her point. Having said that, the message it self is just the kind of big brother, totalitarian garbage that we must stay vigilant about fighting.

  42. Beginning: education doesn't change behavior. Moments ahead: How you present your information is what matters. So, education does change behavior

  43. So what Cross is actually conveying here, is that attitudes do not predict behavior. We do not need to change attitudes in order for people to participate in fruitful and beneficial behavior. I think that is a very important argument, that if true (as it is backed up by a lot of evidence however there is a lot of evidence showing that changing attitudes leads to a change in behavior also) it is very important in our modern soceity.

  44. How come Architechts don't routinely design Energy EFFIFIENT/SELF-Sufficient" Buildings?!….. They ALWAYS/routinely design building that WASTE Lots of energy, and cost the owners a lot of money over the life of the building, instead of MAKING Money!!! ……."D'oh!"….

  45. ……."SHEEPle"!!!!…. You are ALL DOOMED to become SLAVES/VICTIMS of Islam, or killed, by Muslims that will take over your morally weak "SHEEPLE" culture.

  46. This is not only silly, it's not even important, because it fails to ask the hard question (let alone sufficiently), "Why bother?"

  47. I will engage in conservation behavior hat restricts my lifestyle, capabilities, and opportunities when I see the wealthy upper class, the government, the corporations, and the military engaging in conservation behavior that restricts their lifestyle, capabilities, and opportunities.

  48. One thing about education is that. After the topic has been discussed. People will always have their opinion good or bad, and think that they can explain the topic better than the next person.

  49. Does anyone know the name of the study she talks about with the basketball sized hole and weather stripping? Or the one about giving money to a busking musician?

  50. Hopefully this is an accurate summary:.

    Myth 1: lack of education/information is the reason for irrational behaviour. Wrong. (behvaiour is more complex than this)

    Myth 2: need to change attitudes to change behaviour? no.

    Answer: Set behavioural expectations. It works. Also understand people's values.

    Myth 3: People know what motivates them? No.

    Answer: Social influence and social norms are a stronger motivator than we realise.

  51. Some criticisms for Jeni Cross. Although buildings represent 40% of American energy consumption, only half that is for residential buildings. Furthermore, residential building energy use is split between water heating, refrig, space heating, air conditioning, light, television and clothes dryers. Residential space heating in its entirety only represents approximately 3% of the national energy consumption. Showing a basketball may be effective, but plugging drafts is not really worth that much. Installing solar panels only to run the household refrigerators (7% energy consumption) during the day would be a far more cost effective way to save energy.

  52. So true ….Children LEARN what they LIVE …. Practice What We Preach !! CONVICTION PURPOSE & PERSONAL INTEGRITY PERSONAL INTEGRITY is a everyone's choice COMMITM3NT

  53. I dont completely agree. Social norms are a powerful and quite frankly a seductive motivator, but those with strong internal locus are not easily influenced. Boneheads like myself dont gauge myself and drive my behavior due to societal standards or pressures.

    That being said, of course I abide some societal norms (e.g. tipping, though I hate it), not a viva la rebellion guy always for the sake of it.

    May the force be with you all.

  54. What is difference between attitude and behaviour? I know the meaning of both the words but it's difficult to differentiate from the parent's example of turning of the lights. How is behavioural expectation different from attitude expectation?

  55. What if I do not trust anyone who gives me their expectations especially social scientists or anyone with power? What if I understand everything she says and that is exactly why I won't go along with it anymore? What if nobody trusts anyone anymore to follow their so called "expectations". What if the social contract is so broken in a society that nobody cares at all to follow someone else's expectations? By the way the same generation who told me to turn off the lights to save energy, also told me getting a job so I could spend my life getting paid with petro dollars was a good idea for me too. Way too many contradictions in reality for anyone to have expectations for other people that make any sense what so ever.

  56. If what she says is true, she should have ended with "8 out of 10 of you will go and institute this in your life and bring about great change!"

    On that note…they do say that 96% of all statistics are made up on the spot…

  57. We think that if we show people how big a problem is they would stop doing it

    Myth 1 : Education will change behavior

    There are three kinds of ways that common sense leads us astray :

    +1: We think that if we were to change people's behavior we need to educate them.

    We are assuming that by providing the information we will fill the missing piece in the equation.

    Providing people with information is simply not enough. ! ! !

    How you present information makes a difference.

    1 One of the things that makes a difference is making information tangible.

    This helps people to understand the importance of a situation.

    -Example : you have a crack on the roof of your house as big as a basketball.

    2: The second thing that makes a difference is personalizing the information.

    3 : The third thing is Social interaction and this is one of the most important

    tools we can use for making a change.

    When you give people all of these three things you have three times better results.

    How you present your information triples the effectiveness of your effort.

    +2.Human beings don't like to lose things.

    if you tell people what they're losing they will engage in behavior just because

    you've told them what they're loosing.

    Hearing that you're losing is more likely to change behavior then hearing that your gaining.

    Framing loss can make a difference

    +3.Different audiences need different information

    You have to give a message that is appealing to the targeted audience.

    When you are talking to the people the information has to resonates to them and to also present the information that they in particular interested in hearing about.

    Knowing your audience is a key factor in making any change.

    Myth 2 : You need to change attitude to change behavior.

    Attitude follows behavior! attitude does not predict behavior!

    When people engage in the behavior you want

    you will be able to measure the attitude you expect

    but before that, you need to do something else

    Setting expectations work for all kinds of things.

    Set behavioral expectations !!!

    Don't change attitudes set behavioral expectations!

    Remind people to engage in a change of behavior that you want!

    If we're not going to change people's behavior by changing the attitude how do we deal with a tough issue such as climate change.

    How do we deal with that?

    We don't deal with that by changing anybody's attitude

    We deal with it by understanding what people's underlying values are.

    What is it that they really people care about?

    If you ask people, they will tell you what really matters to them.

    You must understand values, that's a whole different tactics then changing attitudes

    Myth 3 : People know what motivates them to take action

    One of the big things that influence our behavior is social norms.

    When some people are doing something other people are more likely to do the same or follow.

    Seeing somebody doing it is a better predictor that you will do it as well.

    Social norms are a great predictor of behavior.

    Social norms are the most understood and underestimated by human beings

    Social norms have the biggest impact on behavior.

    Social norms are the most influential

    Making effective change

    Make your change meaningful

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