Yuma 4×4

Media and Communications



DEB WENGER: Hi. This is Deb Wenger. Today, we’re going to talk
about Chapter 11, advertising, the selling of a message. And so, when we think
about advertising, most often we think
about television, or we think about
a newspaper ad. But the reality of it is that
advertising is everywhere. It’s ubiquitous, in other words. If you get into a
cab in New York, there’s going be advertising
on the little screen in the backseat of the cab. If you are a Twitter user,
you may see a sponsored tweet. When you choose to wear
an Under Armour shirt that has the logo
prominently displayed, essentially you are
involved in advertising. And you’re consuming
advertising. So what is advertising? How do we define it? Well, according
to your text, it’s any form of non-personal
communication about an organization,
product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. So if you think about it,
the non-personal essentially means that it’s not when
your friend tells you that Nike’s are better
than Under Armour, it’s when you watch a paid-for
message that tells you Nike is better than Under Armour. And this element of it being
from an identified sponsor is important. Because a lot of
times, it can be challenging to figure
out really what is the difference between
public relations, marketing, advertising. Because that line seems to blur. And so this guy, Robert Wynne,
who’s a PR practitioner, says that “Advertising
is paid media, public relations
is earned media.” So what do we mean by that? So if you read a story
about the Apple iWatch, presumably if it’s in
The Wall Street Journal, that’s earned media. So somebody at The
Wall Street Journal said this is an
important story to cover. Let’s tell people
about the Apple watch. I’m sorry. I think I called it the iWatch. It’s just called
the Apple Watch. If you are watching
American Idol and you see an advertisement
touting how wonderful the Apple Watch is, that is the
difference between paid media and earned media. So somebody did
a good enough job of selling The Wall
Street Journal on the idea that the Apple Watch
made a good story. That’s PR. Somebody went and bought time
during American Idol from Fox. That’s advertising. All right. So advertising and media
have been intertwined for nearly two centuries now. If you remember back when we
were talking about newspapers, it was in the 1803s that the
Penny Press came into being. And essentially what
made newspapers so cheap was the fact that they
were accepting advertising. And so the advertising
essentially helped pay for the
cost of printing that newspaper, which meant
the public got to pay less. In the mid-1800s, we saw the
rise of consumer magazines. And to some extent,
especially some of the women-oriented
magazines, were primarily vehicles for advertisements. They were ways for advertisers
to reach a demographic that was very desirable,
because women control so much of household spending. When radio and television
were first conceived, they were essentially conceived
as being advertising vehicles. And so, they WERE always
going to be free media, because they knew that
they wanted advertising to pay for the programming
that were there. Now of course, we have
things like sponsored tweets and mobile ads. And who knows what’s
coming in the future? We’ve already been talking about
internet-enabled refrigerators that will note when your
milk is at a low level and shoot you the latest
ads from local grocery stores about the
cheapest milk in town. So advertising is already
ubiquitous, and likely to get even more so. Ultimately, the relationship
between advertising and media is that the media sells
the audience that they gather to advertisers. So why is it important
for WTVA in Tupelo to have a lot of viewers? They don’t really
have much competition. Why do they work
every day to bring more viewers into the tent? Because the more
viewers they have, the more they can
charge advertisers. More advertisers are
interested in running their ads on that station. So there are different
types of advertising. Consumer advertising is
the one that we’re probably most familiar with. You see here if you happen
to read The DM online, you might have seen this
Oxford Urgent Care ad before. So this is an example
of local advertising. So it’s designed to get
people here in Oxford to use this local service. National ads are
less likely about go to store X to buy
product A, and more about trying to build
demand for a product that’s available around the country. So an ad for a Toyota
4Runner is going to air nationally
because you can purchase that vehicle nationally. Consumer advertising,
of course, has a couple of different agendas. One is a direct action message. And so the idea is to get
you to go buy something, or get you to sign
up for something. Then there’s also an
indirect action message. And oftentimes,
these are designed to create an image, or
a company, or a brand, and make you feel good
about that product. So you’re not really
saying go buy Apple Watch, but you’re saying, aren’t
Apple Watches cool? So here’s an example of the top
television commercials of 2014 according to Advertising Age. And what’s particularly
interesting to me about this ad is it’s
for a product most of us know something about,
which is Coca-Cola. But it was designed for
the Argentinian market. However, we can watch this
ad, and there’s absolutely no need to know Spanish
because it’s an image campaign, and it’s trying to project a
certain image of what Coca-Cola is in these people’s lives. So let’s watch this. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] [MUSIC PLAYING] -[SINGING] There’s a light. A certain kind of light
that never shone on me. I want my life to be. But what good does it
do if I ain’t got you? Ain’t got you? Hey, hey. You don’t know what it’s like. Baby, you don’t
know what it’s like to love somebody, to love
somebody, the way I love you. Oooooooooooooooh. You don’t know what it’s like. Baby, you don’t know what
it’s like the way I love you. [END VIDEO PLAYBACK] OK, sorry about that stuttering
there with the video. You can certainly Google
Coca-Cola Life Argentina and watch that without the
little pauses in that video. But why does that video work? Because it deals with
a universal theme, it draws us in with
music, it makes somebody who is watching
television potentially pause and get involved in
this little story. Storytelling is such an
important part of advertising. And then makes you potentially
feel good about Coca-Cola. That Coca-Cola is a
part of our lives. So this is definitely
an image campaign. There’s no push to get you
to go out and buy Coke. It just says that Coke
is part of our lives. All right. Other forms of advertising. So advocacy advertising. So this is an ad that’s
designed to promote a particular point of view. So oftentimes,
political advertising falls into this realm, getting
you to support a new referendum or initiative. This could, though, be something
that a trade organization– you know, “Got Milk?” in a
way is an example of advocacy advertising, trying to
promote the fact that milk is good for you. Public service advertising. So the Sarah McLachlan
ads are often referenced when we talk about
effective public service advertising. I want to cry every time I
see those poor puppies trapped behind those cages. And that’s exactly what
they’re trying to do. Your text talks about
some of the most effective public service campaigns ever. The Smokey the Bear campaign,
the Don’t Litter campaign. All of these are
designed to essentially make the society
aware of a problem, or to try to address
an issue or concern. And then there’s
trade advertising, basically sometimes
called business to business, where
one company that makes a part for an
airplane, let’s say, is promoting the wonders
of that airplane part to a company that needs it. So in the ad business,
there are some key players, and I’m sure that if
you think about it, you could probably name them
off the top of your head. But certainly first,
we need a client, so you need somebody
with something to sell, whether that’s McDonald’s,
or Apple, or Red Med here in Oxford. There was an era, a
fairly extensive era, in which you needed
an ad agency, so a group of
advertising professionals who would come up with
an advertising campaign to essentially help Company
A sell their product. I don’t know how many Mad
Men fans we have out there. But certainly, that
kind of culture of there being standalone
advertising agencies seems to be
diminishing, and we’ll talk about that in a separate
interview with the head of IMC Program here at Old Miss. Because there’s less just
an advertising agency that does nothing but
advertising and more of an integrated marketing
communication approach. Certainly, the media,
we’ve already said, play a big, big part of this. But ads appear in many, many
different types of media. We’ve already talked
about billboards, and tweets, and screens
in the back of your cab or on the airplane when you’re
fastening your seat belt. So advertising
messages essentially bombard us through media. And then finally
is the audience. You would clearly say
last but not least because the audience
has never been more important to the whole ad
business model and strategy. All right. So branding the client. Your book talks about the
definition of a brand name. So a word or phrase attached to
a company, service, or product so they can be better
promoted and identified. And brands, we live with brands. I have a 12-year-old who is
absolutely sure that Jordans are going to help
him play basketball better than Under Armour. Early brands that
your book talks about were Quaker Oats, Pears’ Soap. We could all rattle off
50, 60 brands very easily, because branding and advertising
have been tied, again, for decades and decades. So brands themselves are
created in part by advertising. But essentially, the definition
of a particular brand depends on the interactions
for that company or that brand with consumers. But many companies say
that every interaction you have with a brand,
whether it’s the ad you watch, the product you buy,
what you hear about them on social media,
those little touch points all have an
influence on brand. So most of what we’ve just
talked about, of course, were from the company side. The agency side,
there are a number of things that advertising
agencies, IMC entities, do to help create advertising. In the beginning is
research and planning. So you have to ask, how do I
meet the client’s objectives, and how ultimately do we
measure whether or not the ads did what they wanted? There’s the creative activity,
which I think a lot of people tend to focus on as consumers,
is how interesting, how funny, how clever was that ad. So at times, the creative
people are all about, I want to make this ad rock,
and the sales people are saying, well, it’s lovely, but
it doesn’t sell cars. So there is that
tension between the two. And then there’s actually
an entire profession built around media planning. So deciding, is it better
to purchase sponsored tweets or run a television ad? What’s the most
cost-effective way that we can reach
this target audience? So the audience has
never had more power in this whole equation
than they do now. Although audiences have
always been targeted, there’s more information
now about audiences every time we operate in
a digital space at all. Information about
us is being tracked. So advertisers are now better
able to target information to people that
they think are more likely to be interested in it. In addition, targeting
has been for many years and continues to be done with
demographics, age, sex, race, ethnicity, et cetera. Geographics. Of course, it makes no sense
to target somebody in Memphis with an ad about urgent
care in Oxford right? And then psychographics. Things about who we
are as individuals and how we live our lives. Psychographics and
VALS is something that the text spent
a bit of time on. So this is what motivates you. Are you somebody who has to
have the latest brand name? So psychographics look
at people’s lifestyles, the relationship to the products
that they use or don’t use, and certain personality traits. That section is
interesting to read. I would make sure that
you spend little time on that with the text. It was developed by a company
called SRI International, and actually
categorizes people based on what it is that
motivates them as consumers. So if I’m a planner, how does
that affect the type of car that I buy versus
“I’m an adventurer.” So the future of advertising. We’ve been talking a lot in
this class over this semester about the impact of
digital media, which is affecting everything
that has anything to do about communication. So Parmar is an employee
of Merkle Marketing Agency, a significant marketing firm in. California. And his quote is
that “By 2020, we will have the ability
to track and understand every interaction and have
one-on-one conversations with every customer.” So this is a prediction
that the two-way nature of digital technology
means that companies need to be thinking
about if we have the ability and
potentially the expectation that we will interact with every
single one of our customers, even if we have
billions, how do we need to manage our advertising
and our companies differently? He goes on to say that really
the future of advertising will require people
who are involved in it to remember three things. First is relevance. So understand what
the customer needs, be there for them at the right
time with the relevant answer regardless of medium. So if I’m searching
for a dress to wear on Easter Sunday at church
and I’m on my smartphone, then a company that
sells the kind of dresses that I might want to wear
needs to know that and be able to get that information to
me when I’m on my smartphone. Restraint. At the same time– so technology
is offering new opportunities. We need to use it
when appropriate. Do I want a drone flying
through my neighborhood advertising the fact that Kroger
has a special on ground beef? no. Do I want my refrigerator
to be blasting in messages, or do I want there to be an
ad on the seat in front of me when I’m at an Ole
Miss football game. So again, this idea
that we already have the technology
that makes advertising exist nearly
everywhere, but we also have the potential to ramp it
up to unprecedented levels. And that gets us
to responsibility. So as there are more and more
capabilities to track what we’re doing even
in our own homes– how many times you go
to the refrigerator could be an indication
of a weight problem. Outdoor facial recognition. Some of you might be
aware that there’s been a lot of controversy
over all the cameras that are everywhere
capturing us and being able to be used to track
our movements when we’re out in a public space. And then cross device
tracking capabilities means that it’s never been
more important for advertisers to be responsible and to
think about the potential for overwhelming small
children with advertising to be promoting
unhealthy lifestyles. And ultimately, part of what
advertising of the future is going to do is become more
service-oriented to be there to provide information
when we want it and less about randomly trying
to provide this information just because it’s possible. So be sure to keep tweeting
using the hashtag umjour101. I like it best when the
tweets are relevant to what we’re discussing in class. And don’t forget to watch
the supplemental video that is to go along with
Chapter 11 on Blackboard.

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