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How the Apollo Spacecraft works: Part 1

How the Apollo Spacecraft works: Part 1


The Apollo Spacecraft was the incredible machine that allowed astronauts to walk on the moon. It was split up into 3 parts the Command Module, the Service Module and the Lunar Module. Later on, we’ll talk about what each module does, but first, let’s talk about the launch vehicle that gets us into orbit. The Saturn Five rocket. Each mission was launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Mission Control was all the way in Houston, Texas. The Saturn Five rocket was 363 feet tall. Just to get a good size comparison, here’s the size of a person, and here is the size of a Boeing 747. The Saturn Five was split up into 3 stages; they referred to each stage by a technical name. The first stage was called the S-1C and was powered by five F1 rocket engines. The second stage was called the S2, and was powered by five, slightly smaller, J2 rocket engines. The third stage was called the S-4B and was powered by only one J2 rocket engine. The actual spacecraft, was stored up at the top of the rocket stages. Here is the Lunar Module, which would actually land on the Moon. During the launch, it was protected by four panels, known as the spacecraft Lunar Module adapter. The Service Module contain the engines necessary to enter and leave lunar orbit as well as fuel cells and other electrical components. The Command Module is where the 3 astronauts spent most of their time. At the very top, you’ll find the Launch Escape System. In the event of an emergency, it would carry the Command Module safely away from the rocket. The structure you see next to the Saturn Five is called the Launch Umbilical Tower. You’ll notice there are 9 service arms that provide access to the Saturn Five. On the day of the launch, the 3 astronauts ride an elevator to the top service arm. The White Room is where they enter the Command Module. Four of the service arms are moved out of the way before the launch. The First Stage ignites 8 seconds before the Saturn Five leaves the ground. As the Saturn Five starts to rise, the remaining 5 service arms quickly rotate to get out of the way. It takes about 12 seconds for the rocket to completely clear the tower. As the Saturn Five picks up speed, the astronauts will feel as much as 4 G’s, or 4 times the amount of gravity pressing them into their seats. The First Stage shuts off at 2 minutes 42 seconds at a height of about 42 miles. Explosive bolts detonate releasing the first stage, letting it to fall back down to the Atlantic Ocean; shortly after, the second stage fires up. We’re high enough in the atmosphere now, that the Launch Escape System is no longer needed. The second stage shuts off at 9 minutes and 12 seconds at a height of 109 miles. The third stage fires up for a short amount of time to get the astronauts into a Parking Orbit of 118 miles. We’ll talk more about the Parking Orbit in the next video. It shuts off at 11 minutes and 39 seconds, but does not detach yet. One of the hardest parts of the mission is over, but the adventure doesn’t stop here. Please join me in part two, as we continue our journey towards the Moon.

100 thoughts on “How the Apollo Spacecraft works: Part 1

  1. Nice animation but I have 3 quibbles:
    1. There were 2 elevators, one from ground level to pad level and another from pad level up the entire rocket. The footage we see of the astronauts getting into a mesh elevator is the first elevator. I'm not sure if there is footage of the second elevator.
    2. If explosive bolts were the only means of separating the stages, the discarded stage would still have the same momentum as the rest of the rocket and could have smacked into the rocket. There were retro rockets on each stage to pull the discard stage away. There were 8 on the first stage in the engine fairings — NASA tried 4 on one mission but the stage didn't pull away quick enough so NASA switched back to 8.
    3. The ullage motors on the second and third stage are left out. In a low gravity environment the fuel and oxidizer would float away from the intakes at the bottom of the tank, so ullage motors were used to "kick" the rocket and make the fuel and oxidizer slosh to the bottom of the tanks before firing the stage's main engines.

  2. As a 30 year NASA employee, I just wanted to say these are very interesting and well put together videos! Thanks !

  3. The launch escape system shroud (aka boost protective cover) covered the entire exterior of the command module, down to the edge of the heat shield.
    Scroll down to the third section on this page for an accurate depiction – https://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4205/ch5-3.html#source33

  4. The jettisoning of the escape system is why Neil Armstrong says "…They finally gave me a window to look out…" at 00 00 03 36

    of the flight just after launch.

  5. Can you imagine a day when the American people will never question what the government says again. I cannot, unfortunately and here’s why. This is what REALLY happened on Apollo 11.. https://youtu.be/qzNSX3ftKiw

  6. You forgot the service tower that was painted gray. It surrounded the Saturn V until days before the launch and was rolled away to a parking area about a half mile from the launch pad. Also forgot was the command module shroud that covered the command module and was part of the LAS.

    You showed the Interstage jettisoning but you didn't mention it nor talk about that the clearance was very tight between it's walls and the edge of the four outer J2 engines. That's why on the two test missions, Apollo 4 and 6, they had film cameras that showed just how close it was. These pods ejected soon after and were retrieved from the ocean.

    Yyou also didn't mention that the S-IVB's J2 engine was different than the five that were on the S-II as that single engine had to relight to put the astronauts on the TLI to the moon.

  7. Great video. But when the LES is jettison I think it also takes the CM 's protective cover with it.😁

  8. Thats a sci fi story if only they could do it today!!! but they can’t they lost all the technology and they destroyed everything and they can’t get it back ok great but just a story Full of BS so untill they go back the whole thing is just that of a story I believed we walk on the moon for 32 years for the last ten I’ve been searching for truth and I find nothing but a world of lies deceit war wealth famine cruelty , they can’t sort a pipe line to give clean water but they can have a trip to the moon come on.can you smell it yet can ya that tainted smell of shit!!!!

  9. I've never figured out the rationale of having the launch site at Florida and Mission Control in Houston. I suspect it was all politics, right?

  10. So they made to the moon and back on the first try with relatively ZERO problems? Went thru the Van Allen belt without frying and even have perfect footage of the lem blasting off on the moon with remote controlled camera over 200,000 miles away?
    And it was 1969? I'm not saying it was faked…….I just want somebody to explain how they made it thru the Van Allen belt and also why they seemed so ashamed at the press conference afterwards.

  11. What is with the large rectangular recessed area on the service module? I've seen that in only a few representations of it?

  12. Jared part of the damage control net for promoting the space shots….defeating the naysayers who recall Neil didn't see stars ??

  13. Co za brednie. Lądowanie na Księżycu w A.D. 1969!
    Moduł wznoszenia osiąga odpowiednią wysokość – 60 mil, bo taka była ponoć wysokość orbity modułu serwisowego i dowodzenia. Zapamiętajcie sobie, że na tej orbicie moduł serwisowy i dowodzenia musiał mieć prędkość ok. 1,69 km/s i co najwyżej mógł minąć moduł wznoszenia. To jest najprostszy dowód na to, że ta banda oszustów z NASA nigdy nie była na żadnym Księżycu. Po pierwsze, tym swoim idiotycznym pajęczakiem LM, owiniętym pozłacaną folią musieli wyhamować te 1,69 km/s przy lądowaniu a następnie przyśpieszyć do połączenia się na orbicie. Zagadkę, skąd wzięli na to paliwo pozostawiam do rozwiązania Tobie.

    Reasumując, jest to jedno wielkie kłamstwo księżycowe, dla ciemnych i bezmyślnych mas uknute.
    Zwykłe brednie. Przykładowo Moduł Wznoszenia osiąga odpowiednią wysokość – 60 mil, bo taka była ponoć wysokość orbity Modułu Serwisowego i Dowodzenia. Zapamiętajcie sobie, że na tej orbicie Moduł Serwisowy i Dowodzenia musiał mieć prędkość ok. 1,69 km/s i co najwyżej mógł minąć Moduł Wznoszenia. To jest najprostszy dowód na to, że ta banda oszustów z NASA nigdy nie była na żadnym Księżycu. Po pierwsze, tym swoim idiotycznym pajęczakiem LM, owiniętym pozłacaną folią musieli wyhamować te 1,69 km/s przy lądowaniu a następnie przyśpieszyć do połączenia się na orbicie. Zagadkę, skąd wzięli na to paliwo pozostawiam do rozwiązania Tobie czytelniku. (pomijam tu kwestię jak zredukowali prędkość całego zestawu Apollo dolatującego do Księżyca z 10,8 km/s do 1,69 km/s? W jaki sposób uniknęli koziołkowania przy hamowaniu skoro zestaw Apollo nie miał rotacji?)

    Niezłe też łącze mieli amerykańscy chłopcy jak na tamte czasy, nie ma co. Ciekawe czy łącze było bezpośrednie czy przez przekaźniki tv? Na proste moje pytanie: „kto im zestawił tor transmisji wizji z Księżyca?” „fachowcy” mówią, że „były już transmisje TV poprzez satelity”. Owszem, był Ziemia-satelita-Ziemia a nie LM na Księżycu – Ziemia. Transmisje, o których wspomniałem tj. Ziemia-satelita-Ziemia były realizowane przy pomocy stacji gigantów podobnych jak ta w Psarach. Gdzie była taka stacja na Księżycu, co ją zasilało?
    Tak nawiasem to w PRL nie było żadnej transmisji z „pierwszego lądowania” tylko około godz. 22 wieczorem powiedzieli w TVP1 (był tylko 1 program), że wylądowali i tyle. Wiem bo pamiętam.

    Polecam oryginalne zdjęcia z „lądowania” na Księżycu w filmie Krzysztofa Zanussiego z roku 1972 pt. Iluminacja.
    Na tym filmie, gostek w skafandrze z plecakiem, będąc pierwszy raz na Księżycu zeskakuje z drabinki z przedostatniego szczebla, z wysokości 80 cm bezpośrednio na grunt księżycowy!
    Zdjęcia a dokładniej film jest oryginalny, „zdjęty kamerą z telewizora” z transmisji telewizyjnej z A.D. 1969. Po prostu skarb który pozwala popukać się w głowę z całym tym „lądowaniem na Księżycu”!

    Dla myślących niedowiarków a wierzących w to Wielkie Kłamstwo Księżycowe proponuję takie oto ćwiczenie:

    1. Ściągnij rysunki wymiarowe Lądownika Księżycowego ze strony NASA i oblicz* pojemność zbiorników paliwa i utleniacza.
    2. Przyjmując za pierwszą prędkość kosmiczną Księżyca 1,68 km/s oblicz z wzoru E=1/2*m*v*v energię kinetyczną potrzebną do wyhamowania lądownika z pierwszej prędkości kosmicznej Księżyca do zera (lądowanie) a następnie rozpędzenie lądownika (startownika) do pierwszej prędkości kosmicznej Księżyca = 1,68 km/s pamiętając, że zmienia się masa tego, co startuje do tego, co lądowało (dokładnie zmienia się w czasie, bo ubywa w czasie paliwa – obliczenie dla ambitnych).
    3. Porównaj otrzymane wyniki z wartością energetyczną paliwa w zbiornikach zakładając 100% sprawność silników rakietowych i SAM wyciągnij wnioski czy lądowali na Księżycu czy nie lądowali.

    Rozumiem, że sprawę egzekucji JFK, lądowania na Księżycu, sprawę 9/11 już wyjaśniono … i Jankesi z czystym sumieniem mogą się zabrać za Smoleńsk? Naiwność ludzka miesza się z ignorancją, głupotą i brakami elementarnej wiedzy technicznej i z historii.

    P.S. Moja śp. Babcia mawiała coś co szczególnie pasuje do "lądowania na Księżycu": "w dupie był – gówno widział"

  14. CONTINUE TO LIVE IN THE WORLD OF DREAMS !!
    It is much easier to deceive people than to convince them that they have been deceived, especially when an entire state apparatus supports and promotes a plan of domination whose nature has ancestral origins.

    Becoming aware of this condition changes the perception of existence, gives that peace and balance that help us to live and to rise, getting closer to the Creator and overcoming chronic fears and dissonance, the human being comes out of the limbo in which he WILL NO LONGER RETURN !

    John 8:31

    31 Jesus then said to those Jews who had believed in him: "If you persevere in my word, you are truly my disciples; 32 you will know the truth and the truth will make you free ».

    ☀ FAIR USE ☀

    Stanley Kubrik's 🎬 MOON SHINING https://youtu.be/3oAWhQmyUzQ

    FONT: Wikileaks stolen files

  15. nasa = religion = you Believe everything these morrons in a labcoat tell you. like a priest or prophet?

    Believing in NASA means doom for your soul. NASA is thus a religion, a Belief, cause you never went to space yourself. You just have to Believe what any Sodomite tells you.

    That in itself is a Belief/Religion. Away from the Creator/ God, and therefore Demonic/ satanic.

    To conclude:

    If NASA is your religion, you are a Satanist and doomed.

    Damned is the correct description and legal term.

  16. How is the LES ejected when the vehicle is moving at such a high speed? It must have had powerful rockets to have been able to avoid contact with the command module when detaching.

  17. '
    love american is the best big saturn V rocket…
    but why why computer animation edit video is a very bad move move shake shake at 246 to 257 / 303 to 307 / 310…
    dont do that

  18. A Presumptuous Opinion: The Poop & Pee Theory proves no outer space and no moon landing. The astronauts supposedly spent three days to reach the moon and two days to come back. It is told that a clear plastic bag was used to urinate in and obviously someone had put catheters in their urinary tract into the bladder. On a
    documentary just two days ago the urine bag was shown and it was a small thin clear plastic bag with pee in it. Looked like they could only urinate maximum 2 times and it's full. What a minute? How did you astronauts hold your pee for 5 days. Also, the capsule's inside barely had room for 3 people, so there was no toilet Wait a second? Where is all the poop for 3 men for 5 days. That is a lot of poop. We’re talking pounds of poop. Were you astronauts wearing outer-space-diapers? How did you astronauts hold your poop for 5 days? Can't imagine the smell inside that capsule. When the astronauts came out of the capsule, they must have had such a lovely fragrance to smell that made people immediately vomit. This was A Presumptuous Opinion on The Poop & Pee Theory. Now that's thinking outside the box.

  19. NASA
    Astronaut Don Pettit We Can't Go Back to The Moon, That Technology Was
    Destroyed

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BF8Vw6yt-8

    NASA
    engineer admits they can't get past the Van Allen Belts

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4IPtJwuR0M

    NASA ADMITS Man Made
    Barrier Structure Around Earth (GOD’S DOME CONFIRMED!?)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGDt-KcQwcE

  20. Jared, great explanation and very nice graphics. My only suggestion is, your video, like most others I've seen, don't include what I think is one of the most interesting parts of the Saturn V – the Instrument Unit. Built by IBM, the IU was the brains of the Saturn V. It was built in Huntsville, AL across the road from Marshall Space Flight Center where the rocket scientists who designed the Saturn V worked. It is a 3' high ring, 22' in diameter on the third stage, about the 300' level. The IU has the computers that monitor sensors, attitude, acceleration, vibration, etc., and that control the engine gimbals to keep the rocket on the correct path. It also has the telemetry equipment and radio communications back to earth, etc. I worked on the IU at IBM during the Apollo program and the IU can be seen briefly on current IBM TV commercials. IUs are on display at the main space museums at Houston, Huntsville, the Cape and at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC. This URL has some photos of the IU at NASM: https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/instrument-unit-saturn

  21. I still say that Apollo could not have made it past low earth orbit but the graphics are well done. A thumbs up for that!

  22. we are not meant to travel in space…if you in any way have association with christianity the Bible tells us to live as simply as possible…just like the first christians…in this modern age the Amish are a good example of christian communal living…simply and close to nature…Jesus once told a rich young man to go home, sell all he has, give the proceeds to the poor, and then come to follow Him…but the rich young men went away sad because he had many belongings which he could not part with. But the final word goes to Eisenhower, who once vetoed Apollo. He reminded Americans that "every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed"…the 'space race' is idle lunacy…Houston, who is going to clean up the tons of spacejunk you (and Russia, China, and India) left behind on our Sister Moon…and is also circling our Mother Earth???

  23. This is for Shill Stompers who made this claim and I responded to but the idiot doesn't like the answers and is deleting them:

    Q: What pressurised those tanks when the helium pressure system was removed to balance fit the rover for Apollo 15, 16, and 17?

    A: Were does he say it was removed? My main reference, Scott Sullivan's Virtual LM shows nothing removed and a extra water tank added as well as a waste containment container and a extra LOX tank. All 3 were placed in quadrant 4 along with a modified MESA. Also, the batteries were relocated from quadrant 1 to between quadrants 2 & 3.

    Q: Look at the Apollo 11 and 12 LEM schematics and then compare that to the 16 and 17 lem schematics. The helium tank used to pressurise the fuel was removed so how the hell can this now work? No pressure in the system, no go.

    A: How about providing links to those schematics. Among my Apollo related book collection is the "Lunar Module Vehicle Familiarization Manual LM 10 thru LM 14" Which covers specifically the 5 J-mission LM's built, 2 of which never flew because of cancelled missions. There's 4 pages that go through the changes made to the J-mission LM's and absolutely no mention of helium tanks being removed. What was added was a controlled bleed vent for descent section super-critical helium tank. This was done to extend maximum standby time of super-critical helium from 131 hrs to 190 hrs. Pages 3-28, 3-34, are pages of schematics for the ascent and descent stages propulsion system that clearly show Helium tanks are involved with the propulsion system along with helium isolation valves and helium primary valves. Then there's page 3-42 that deals specifically with the helium pressurization and propellant feed sections for the RCS which again clearly shows helium tanks in the schematic.

    Here's a link that on page 779 shows how much helium was added to each helium tank during launch preparations:

    https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/SNA-8-D-027III-Rev2-CsmLmSpacecraftOperationalDataBook-Volume3-MassProperties.pdf

    Clearly your "No pressure in the system, no go.' is completely inappropriate based on bogus information.

  24. A few questions if I may,
     
    The first stage is falling back to earth and falls in the ocean. Is it retrieved?
    What happens with the second stage, third stage, the launch escape system, the part of the lunar module that brings back the astronauts from the moon and last the service module, when they are not needed anymore. Do they drift in space for the rest of there existence? (Sorry for my poor English, it is not my native language).

  25. This is fabulous work Jared. Thanks to the 50 year anniversary of Apollo 11, I came across your video. Your animation makes it very clear for someone like me to understand the whole Apollo mission operation. I find it fantastic now with the technology from 60's. I cant watch the space missions enough. Thank you very much.

  26. did anybody notice at 5:48, right after the crew initiate Powered Descent, and it showed the back of the LM as it began to descend…and the landing leg has a ladder on it? Only the front leg outside of the egress hatch had the ladder.

  27. It's amazing how dumb people remain. Manned moon landings remain impossible. There are 100 bullet points why we never went to the moon and therefore never returned. The recent "crash site" images psy-op is just as fake as the 50 year old images. A high school kid could generate such images. Just a month ago, Israel crashed an un-manned probe (allegedly) on the moon. Imagine the body count if we tried landing men on the moon 50 years ago. Use your head, son. Apollo is a cult, not science. You people are rubes. Absolute rubes. The rocket engines for the Saturn V were never used. They kept blowing up.

  28. маленький нюанс ))))) не " работает " . а – " работал " ))) т.к. нихрена не осталось от той эпопеи. даже документации…

  29. Nice video except they never make it.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAtn7hgfQ7A

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSDg-lXeang

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=HdGFSsnezvI

  30. You might be interested in this video that shows how impossible a task that it is to get to the moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb4N2OAuMEo&t=2407s

  31. You might be interested in this video that shows how impossible a task that it is to get to the moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb4N2OAuMEo&t=2407s

  32. You might be interested in this video that shows how impossible a task that it is to get to the moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb4N2OAuMEo&t=2407s

  33. Please wake up people and realize the moon landings are just mind control. We never went because the moon is not what they tell us. Check my channel and wake up!

  34. I think he could have used KSP to show the same images (if modded, it would even look photorealist, even).

  35. Well, if the engine(s) broke while in lunar orbit, then how would they have broken free from lunar orbit to finish the free-return trajectory?

  36. Co za brednie. Lądowanie na Księżycu w A.D. 1969!
    Moduł wznoszenia osiąga odpowiednią wysokość – 60 mil, bo taka była ponoć wysokość orbity modułu serwisowego i dowodzenia. Zapamiętajcie sobie, że na tej orbicie moduł serwisowy i dowodzenia musiał mieć prędkość ok. 1,69 km/s i co najwyżej mógł minąć moduł wznoszenia. Co najwyżej mógł rozbić się o Księżyc przy lądowaniu i minąć moduł wznoszenia przy wejściu na orbitę. Do tych manewrów potrzebne jest paliwo i to jest kluczowy dowód, że jest to lipa jak mawia młody Tusk. To jest najprostszy dowód na to, że ta banda oszustów z NASA nigdy nie była na żadnym Księżycu. Po pierwsze, tym swoim idiotycznym pajęczakiem LM, owiniętym pozłacaną folią musieli wyhamować te 1,69 km/s przy lądowaniu a następnie przyśpieszyć do połączenia się na orbicie. Zagadkę, skąd wzięli na to paliwo pozostawiam do rozwiązania Tobie.

    Reasumując, jest to jedno wielkie kłamstwo księżycowe, dla ciemnych i bezmyślnych mas uknute.
    Zwykłe brednie. Przykładowo Moduł Wznoszenia osiąga odpowiednią wysokość – 60 mil, bo taka była ponoć wysokość orbity Modułu Serwisowego i Dowodzenia. Zapamiętajcie sobie, że na tej orbicie Moduł Serwisowy i Dowodzenia musiał mieć prędkość ok. 1,69 km/s i co najwyżej mógł minąć Moduł Wznoszenia. To jest najprostszy dowód na to, że ta banda oszustów z NASA nigdy nie była na żadnym Księżycu. Po pierwsze, tym swoim idiotycznym pajęczakiem LM, owiniętym pozłacaną folią musieli wyhamować te 1,69 km/s przy lądowaniu a następnie przyśpieszyć do połączenia się na orbicie. Zagadkę, skąd wzięli na to paliwo pozostawiam do rozwiązania Tobie czytelniku. (pomijam tu kwestię jak zredukowali prędkość całego zestawu Apollo dolatującego do Księżyca z 10,8 km/s do 1,69 km/s? W jaki sposób uniknęli koziołkowania przy hamowaniu skoro zestaw Apollo nie miał rotacji?)

    Niezłe też łącze mieli amerykańscy chłopcy jak na tamte czasy, nie ma co. Ciekawe czy łącze było bezpośrednie czy przez przekaźniki tv? Na proste moje pytanie: „kto im zestawił tor transmisji wizji z Księżyca?” „fachowcy” mówią, że „były już transmisje TV poprzez satelity”. Owszem, był Ziemia-satelita-Ziemia a nie LM na Księżycu – Ziemia. Transmisje, o których wspomniałem tj. Ziemia-satelita-Ziemia były realizowane przy pomocy stacji gigantów podobnych jak ta w Psarach. Gdzie była taka stacja na Księżycu, co ją zasilało?
    Tak nawiasem to w PRL nie było żadnej transmisji z „pierwszego lądowania” tylko około godz. 22 wieczorem powiedzieli w Komitecie d/s Radia i Telewizji (nie było wtedy ani TVP ani TVP1 był jeden program pod nazwą którą przytoczyłem), że wylądowali i tyle. Wiem bo pamiętam. Potem 6 godzin później była jakaś "transmisja" o 4 rano.

    Polecam oryginalne zdjęcia z „lądowania” na Księżycu w filmie Krzysztofa Zanussiego z roku 1972 pt. Iluminacja.
    Na tym filmie, gostek w skafandrze z plecakiem, będąc pierwszy raz na Księżycu zeskakuje z drabinki z przedostatniego szczebla, z wysokości 80 cm bezpośrednio na grunt księżycowy!
    Zdjęcia a dokładniej film jest oryginalny, „zdjęty kamerą z telewizora” z transmisji telewizyjnej z A.D. 1969. Po prostu skarb który pozwala popukać się w głowę z całym tym „lądowaniem na Księżycu”!

    Dla myślących niedowiarków a wierzących w to Wielkie Kłamstwo Księżycowe proponuję takie oto ćwiczenie:

    1. Ściągnij rysunki wymiarowe Lądownika Księżycowego ze strony NASA i oblicz* pojemność zbiorników paliwa i utleniacza.
    2. Przyjmując za pierwszą prędkość kosmiczną Księżyca 1,68 km/s oblicz z wzoru E=1/2*m*v*v energię kinetyczną potrzebną do wyhamowania lądownika z pierwszej prędkości kosmicznej Księżyca do zera (lądowanie) a następnie rozpędzenie lądownika (startownika) do pierwszej prędkości kosmicznej Księżyca = 1,68 km/s pamiętając, że zmienia się masa tego, co startuje do tego, co lądowało (dokładnie zmienia się w czasie, bo ubywa w czasie paliwa – obliczenie dla ambitnych).
    3. Porównaj otrzymane wyniki z wartością energetyczną paliwa w zbiornikach zakładając 100% sprawność silników rakietowych i SAM wyciągnij wnioski czy lądowali na Księżycu czy nie lądowali.

    Rozumiem, że sprawę egzekucji JFK, lądowania na Księżycu, sprawę 9/11 już wyjaśniono … i Jankesi z czystym sumieniem mogą się zabrać za Smoleńsk? Naiwność ludzka miesza się z ignorancją, głupotą i brakami elementarnej wiedzy technicznej i z historii.

    P.S. Moja śp. Babcia mawiała coś co szczególnie pasuje do "lądowania na Księżycu": "w dupie był – gówno widział"

    What a nonsense. Landing on the moon in A.D. 1969.
    The climb module reaches the appropriate height – 60 miles, because this was probably the height of the service and command module's orbit. Remember that in this orbit the service and command module had to have a speed of about 1.69 km / s and at most the climb module could have passed. This is the simplest evidence that this bunch of NASA cheats has never been on any moon. First of all, with this idiotic LM arachnid, wrapped with a gold-plated foil, they had to brake those 1.69 km / s at landing and then accelerate to connect in orbit. I leave the riddle where they took the fuel for it.

    To sum up, this is one big lunar lie, for the dark and mindless masses.
    Normal nonsense. For example, the Ascension Module reaches the appropriate height – 60 miles, because this was probably the height of the Service Module and Command Module. Remember that in this orbit the Service and Command Module had to have a speed of about 1.69 km / s and at most it could have passed the Climbing Module. This is the simplest evidence that this bunch of NASA cheats has never been on any moon. First of all, with this idiotic LM arachnid, wrapped with a gold-plated foil, they had to brake those 1.69 km / s at landing and then accelerate to connect in orbit. I leave the riddle where they took the fuel for the solution to you.

    The American boys were pretty good at that time as well, there's no point. I wonder if the link was direct or via tv relays? To my simple question: "who put them together for the transmission of the vision from the moon?" "Experts" say that "TV broadcasts through satellites were already". Yes, there was Earth-satellite-Earth and not LM on the Moon – Earth. The transmissions I mentioned, i.e. Earth-satellite-Earth were carried out using a station of giants similar to that in Psary. Where was the station on the moon, what fed it?
    By the way, in the PRL there was no transmission from the "first landing" only about 22 in the evening they said on TVP1 (there was only 1 program) that they landed and that's it. I know because I remember.

    I recommend original photos from "landing" on the Moon in the film by Krzysztof Zanussi from 1972 entitled Illumination.
    In this movie, a pack in a suit with a backpack, being on the Moon for the first time, he jumps off the ladder from the penultimate level, from the height of 80 cm directly to the moon land!
    The picture is more or less the original film, "taken with a TV camera" from a TV broadcast from A.D. 1969. Just a treasure that lets you tap your head with all this "landing on the moon"!

    For thinking doubters and believers in this Great Lunar Lie, I suggest this exercise:

    1. Download dimensional drawings of the Lunar Lander from the NASA website and calculate * the capacity of the fuel and oxidizer tanks.
    2. Assuming 1.68 km / s for the first cosmic velocity of the Moon, calculate the equation kinetic energy E = 1/2 * m * v * v needed to stop the lander from the first space velocity of the Moon to zero (landing) and then accelerate the lander (starter) ) to the first cosmic velocity of the Moon = 1.68 km / s, remembering that the mass of what starts for what landed changes (it changes in time, because it decreases during fuel – calculation for ambitious ones).
    3. Compare the obtained results with the energy value of fuel in tanks assuming 100% efficiency of rocket engines and SAM draw conclusions whether they landed on the moon or did not land.

    I understand that the case of JFK execution, landing on the moon, case 9/11 has already been cleared up … and the Yankees can consume Smolensk with a clear conscience? Human naïveté is mixed with ignorance, stupidity and lack of elementary technical knowledge and history.
    P.S. My late Grandma used to say something that particularly suits "landing on the moon": "he was in the ass – he saw shit"

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