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First Crusade: Siege of Jerusalem 1099 AD

First Crusade: Siege of Jerusalem 1099 AD

It’s the 6th of June of the year 1099. Three long, tough years had passed, since the crusaders left their homes, answering the Pope’s call. But finally, their extraordinary journey frequently struck by famine, plagues and desertions was over. Many disbelieved and wept, seeing the rich domes and high towers of the Holy City of Jerusalem, appearing on the horizon. The ensuing siege, full of both bravery, and atrocity that heavily influenced the history of medieval Europe is about to commence. It’s been some weeks since the miraculous crusader victory over the Turkish relief force on the fields near Antioch, which saved them from impending failure. The capture of the city temporarily eased provisioning problems, yet the Europeans lingered around Antioch for several months after the siege. There were many viable reasons for such a state of affairs. Firstly, marching through the arid lands lying south of Antioch during the hot summer wasn’t considered a good idea, especially by the poor participants, who would likely suffer the most. Secondly, plague descended on the city, which weakened Count Raymond’s health and took life of the Papal legate Adhemar le Puy. It was a significant loss for the latin army, as the coolheaded bishop, Adhemar, often served as conciliator in endless quarrels between the Frankish lords. His death essentially undermined the already fragile cooperation between the leaders, particularly Raymond and Bohemond, who still quarrelled over the fate of the recently conquered city. The latter already titled himself as the Prince of Antioch within the safety of the occupied citadel and refused to participate any further in the expedition. Raymond had obviously made efforts to convince the Norman leader to give up his personal ambitions, and even messaged Emperor Alexios to join the crusaders and reclaim the city, but to no avail. Thus, the crusade stalled for months, with the only notable exception being the nearby city of Maarat, which was captured in December. Eventually, the unrest among the lower ranked knights and officers, who threated their leaders with tearing down the walls of Antioch if they did not resume the crusade, forced Raymond and Godfrey to march out. While the bulk of the latin army departed Antioch in the middle of January 1099, the now unhindered Bohemond could lay the groundwork for his new domain. Meanwhile, the crusaders marched south along the coast and soon found that many petty emirs who, rather than fight the invaders, opted to pay tribute to keep their towns unharmed. Seljuk Turks already realised, that the goal of the Crusade was not total conquest, well, at least not directly, but in specifically reclaiming the Holy City from Muslim hands. It’s worth noting, that when the latin army besieged Antioch in 1098, the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt captured Jerusalem and its surroundings, thus the Seljuk Turks, who were at war with the Fatimid had little interest in actually stopping the Crusaders. Consequently, after five months of relatively easy travel through Palestine, the Europeans reached the port city of Jaffa, where their route turned inland, straight to Jerusalem. But as soon as they started to move East towards the Holy City, the news about Fatimid army assembling in Egypt arrived. Additionally, the wells on their way were either buried or poisoned, and many of the trees were cut down. Some uncertainty arose within the Crusader ranks, as the area was inhospitable, the enemies were gathering and it was again the middle of blistering summer. But the final goal was so close, that even such major concerns couldn’t stop them. On the 7th of June, about two years since departing Constantinople, the Prince’s Crusade eventually reached its final goal, the Holy City of Jerusalem, and set camps around its walls. Just like Antioch the year before, the city was too big to perform a full-fledged siege, so the besiegers divided their forces. Raymond set a camp on the south section of the wall, while Godfrey and the Normans occupied the northern part. Even though many died or left the crusade throughout the last two years, the latin army still counted around 1300 knights and 12,000 infantry, a serious threat to even such a well-defended fortress like Jerusalem. The Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Dawla was well aware of their impending arrival months before, and made his best effort to sufficiently prepare for the upcoming siege. The city was well supplied and well defended, ad-Dawla even had a few hundred skilled light horsemen at his command to harass the invaders. He also expelled all Christians from the city, just to make sure Jerusalem wouldn’t suffer the same fate as Antioch, which had fallen due to treachery. Moreover, as mentioned before, the Fatimids made many food and water sources in the area unusable, forcing the Crusaders to travel considerable distances to forage supplies. It was not only tiresome, but also risky, as ad-Dawla’s cavalrymen often sallied outside the walls and attacked separated groups of foragers. All these Fatimid counter-measures put pressure on the crusaders to act quickly, as their supplies dwindled day by day and they feared the arrival of a Muslim relief force from Egypt at any time. The leaders decided to storm the walls on the 13th of June, a week into the siege, even though they badly lacked siege equipment. It is said that crusaders had just one scaling ladder at this point, so the attack was essentially doomed to fail. The crusaders believed that God was with them but this was not the time for a miracle, as the defenders easily repulsed them. Many were killed and the storm attempt failed miserably. Speaking of miracles, one of Raymond’s priests reportedly had a vision of the deceased bishop Adhemar, who rebuked the Crusade leaders for their quarrels and gave instructions how to conquer Jerusalem. The crusaders had to fast, do a penance and lead a barefoot procession around the walls, for the city to fall in a matter of days. And that is exactly what they did. Either as an act of desperation or extreme piety it must have been a puzzling sight for the Muslim defenders. Anyway, around that time, several Genoese galleys under merchant Guglielmo Embriaco sailed into Jafa’s harbour, some 70 kilometres away. They brought much needed building materials and skilled woodworkers. The ships were soon dismantled, as the Fatimid fleet surrounded the harbour and forced sailors to join the siege. Praising God for this unexpected aid, the crusaders constructed two siege towers and positioned them near the northern and southern parts of the wall. On the 13th of July another assault commenced. Raymond led the attack on the southern part of the wall, while Godfrey and the Normans tried to break the Fatimid defence on the northern perimeter. A relentless storm raged throughout the day. Both sides lost many men, but the city stood strong. During the night, Godfrey decided to secretly dismantle the northern siege tower and move it to the less defended part of the wall around the Flowers Gate. The next day was again full of atrocities, as the crusaders didn’t cease their storming of the walls. In the afternoon, the Fatimids managed to burn down Raymond’s siege tower and repel the enemy. While the situation looked dire on the southern perimeter, as Raymond’s attack collapsed, Godfrey still pushed on the northern part of the wall. Eventually, after a full day and night of fighting he broke the defence and opened the gate. Crusaders flooded into the city which saw fierce fighting break out among its streets and alleys. The defenders of the southern part of the walls also joined the fray, which allowed Raymond’s troops to break through the gates. In a matter of minutes the city’s defence collapsed under the dominant crusader force, and the indiscriminate slaughter of the Jewish and Muslim population occurred, as many of the princes made little effort to restrain their subordinates from looting and killing. Some of the citizens sought refuge in the Al-Aqsa mosque and for a time were guarded by Bohemond’s nephew, Tancred. But while he was busy in another part of the city, the bloodbath spilled into the mosque as well. The Fatimid governor ad-Dawla surrendered to Raymond with his retinue, and was granted safe passage south. Yet not many had the opportunity to surrender directly to the noble Frankish lord. It’s hard to tell exactly how many people were killed in taking the city, but the streets of Jerusalem were awash in blood. Many chroniclers later noted the sheer of brutality committed that day, even by medieval standards. Almost four years had passed since Pope Urban ignited the idea of a Crusade to reclaim the Holy Land, and finally their ultimate goal was accomplished. Yet the story doesn’t end there. A formidable army commanded by Fatimid vizier Al-Afdal was already marching through Sinai to challenge the army of the West and win back Jerusalem. The final battle of the Crusade is yet to be fought.

100 thoughts on “First Crusade: Siege of Jerusalem 1099 AD

  1. Qur'an
    05-Surah Al-Ma'idah [The Table Spread With Food]

    Ayat 114. 'Iesa PBUH (Jesus), son of Maryam PBUH (Mary), said: "O Allah, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread (with food) that there may be for us – for the first and the last of us – a festival and a sign from You; and provide us sustenance, for You are the Best of sustainers

    Ayat 115. Allah said: "I am going to send it down unto you, but if any of you after that disbelieves, then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among (all) the'Alamin (mankind and jinns)."

    Ayat 116. And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): "O 'Iesa PBUH (Jesus), son of Maryam PBUH (Mary)! Did you say unto men: 'Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?' " He will say: "Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner ­self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All­ Knower of all that is hidden and unseen.

    Ayat 117. "Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allah) did command me to say: 'Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.' And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and O Allah You are a Witness to all things. (This is a great admonition and warning to the Christians of the whole world).

    Ayat 118. ('Iesa PBUH (Jesus), said O Lord)"If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily You, only You are the All­ Mighty, the All­ Wise"

    Ayat 119. Allah will say: "This is a Day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise) – they shall abide therein forever. Allah is pleased with them and they with Him. That is the great success (Paradise).

    Ayat 120. To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things

  2. This channel is cool and everything, but you can hear the white guilt in the creators narrative. Only talks about “atrocities” when he’s talking about whites. Or maybe he’s just a filthy Jew.

  3. "Removed all Christians"?
    I'm pretty sure there were some in there when the massacre happened.

  4. قتل اليهود والمسلمين في القدس بابشع الصور
    لكن عندما دخل صلاح الدين وعمر بن الخطاب محررين لبيت المقدس هل فعلوا نفس الشيء ؟
    هل قاموا بتحويل مقدسات المسيحين الى اسطبل للخيول كما فعل الصليبين بالمسجد الاقصى ؟؟
    ويقولون عنا ارهاب !!

  5. Even saladin have a mercy for his enemies , this barbarian who fight for the name of god ,i mean really? Kill all the woman,kid, the old. Whats the point for doing that

  6. Let me get this straight, the umayads attacked the Europeans, and instead of attacking the umayads in retaliation, the umayads attack the fatimads? Sorry guys, but I don't think the crusade was justified, they attacked the wrong enemy.

  7. See, thats how cultural Marxism works. All were the same, but christians were worse. Hitler was described, he didnt do what we know him for then, as muslim. Europe is flooded with muslims and in the US muslims request socialism. They, you, are fucking wog lovers or dumb as shit and repeating propaganda.

  8. I dont want to call someone as a barbarians but crusader did terrible mistakes at war a barbaric things…they turned a bloodbath a holy city…demons lauhing while they doing this…they invade constantinople and make disrespect movement against orthodoxes…they celebrate into ortodox churches with whores and many disrespects such a things that I cannot count..so because of what they did eastern roman empire did not ask any help or support from unholy vatican.

  9. That was the best time in the history of world! When you could smash that saracens and say DEUS VULT ! 😀

  10. The Catholic Church was and is after Israel’s Prime location for trade and tourism. Trying to reclaim what The Romans started viewers! There is Biblical clues to the “beginning” of the “new WORLD economy” controlled by the wealthy. To include sorry to say, the Pulpit! Ask God yourself thru prayer and not men if you desire TRUTH🙏🔑✌️

  11. They could just killed the muslim people nearby, let it rot a bit then catapult them inside.. taking them weeks doing nothing.. dumb cristians.

  12. Battle of Hattin-
    Salahuddin Ayyubi spared All the Christian population , gave safe passage to surrendered Crusaders out of the city and stalled all the damaged churches within the walls of Jerusalem.

  13. i was born a middle eastern muslim , and my whole life i heard people saying islam was spread only through conquest . yet for all their efforts the crusaders sent one crusade after the other and failed to convert the local population through conquest . in the middle east Christianity is only the leading religion in today's Lebanon at about 40% of the population , and even there the local Christian population is genetically different from the local middle eastern gene pool "blue/green eyes , blonde hair" meaning that many of those christians are NOT converts but rather europians who got mixed up with the locals or decided to stay here . meanwhile the muslim population is of all races , i'm white , muslim sumalis and Sudanese are black , Muslim Indonesians are asian , etc . meaning conversion was not done via extermination and replacement but rather intellectually .

  14. they killed Jew Muslims and Christians ! they let almost no one alive ! and you call that Holy ? what a joke ! What are the odds that all the crusaders are in Hell right now ?

    PRAISE GOD.!!!

  16. They should have dropped the nuclear weapon on the Vatican and on Jerusalem and England and the rest of the world would have been perfect

  17. Religious and domestic ideology with the hidden agenda for control of….Land people and wealth ….no wonder these types of worlds fail…. blood cults…..surviving the centuries…

  18. Fakes history, Christianity is a religion of peace, Christians never killed anyone, and never used and sold slaves for millennia, and never, never ever was force on brown people.

    Why are you oppressing me?

  19. Baz Battles reality like you're channel, will you also please make the Second Crusade documentary? Looking forward to it if you are. Thank you!

  20. The cannibalism stories of eating Muslim body parts is false and was trumped up by Muslim imam's and leaders during that time of conflict to get the people riled up and motivated.

    There are many false stories about the crusades being taught in universities throughout the USA and world.

    Compare the 7 total crusades to take back lands conquered by force by Muslims and their 1000's of Jihads waged since. No comparison.

  21. crusader were harbinger of death rape injurie the Catholic terrorist who were not supported by orthodox christian why orthodox christian dont fight for second crusade they even killed by christian Catholic

  22. YES DEUS VULT! How can we praise the god more than washing the city of the son of God by blood, raping and looting. And i am the bad child of my family because i don't want to be religious.

  23. The Christians slaughtered innocent pilgrims Jewish and Muslim alike however when the greats General Saladin took over Jerusalem in the second crusade there no blood shed that’s why Islam is the religion of peace

  24. Here come all the wanna be crusaders of Nintendo world
    Cant last two camping without McDonalds

    Only shit they know
    Deus & Valhalla

    Lack of history perhaps
    Peter the hermit be embarrassed

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